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Teaching Standards
Standard Procedures
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Helpful teaching terms from www.teach-nology.com

Aptitude test - Standardized test designed to assess an individual's potential to acquire and/or develop knowledge
or skills.

Behaviorism -A psychological theory that claims all mental states can be reduced to statements of observable
behaviors. In learning theory, the claim is all learning is based on a stimulus-response relationship.

Bias -Errors in statistical sampling or testing that are by favoring some factors over others. Bias reduces the
overall validity of research. See also: Halo effect, Reliability, Validity

Case study - An investigation format focusing on a specific group, setting, and time period with the aim of studying
and clarifying a unique feature(s) of the situation.

Content developer - Individual who creates and prepares materials used in a learning environment; materials can
be in print of electronic format.

Context - The setting where teaching and learning occur; identifying context involves noting social, geographical,
political, and other factors related to the learning environment.

Cooperative learning - Learning format that requires the cooperation of a small number of students who work
towards the completion of a given task; each student is responsible for a part of the task, and the entire task
cannot be completed without all the learners finishing their portion of the task.

Curriculum - Broadly understood as the subjects and materials to be taught by an educational institution; typically
it is listed as a set of subjects, but also may include the learning experiences, skills, and abilities students are
expected to learn.

Diagnostic test - Examination used to determine students current level of knowledge or skill to identify what
course level they should be placed in or whether remediation is required.

Disadvantaged Students - Students who have not had the same opportunities as other students entering a course
of study and may need special Arrangements or additional assistance to prepare them for study; disadvantages
may be due to physical or emotional problems or deficiencies caused by inequities in social conditions.

Evaluation - Process of assessing work completed by an individual, group, or institution with the aim of
determining whether the individual, group, or institution has meet predetermined standards.

Facilitator - Individual who assists others in a learning process but does not act as a the primary source of
knowledge; the facilitator acts as a guide in during individual or group learning activities.

Guided Reading - A practice whereby a teacher or instructor leads small groups of student through short texts to
facilitate learning of fluency, comprehension, and problem-solving strategies.

Halo effect -The tendency to judge an person based on a previous formed favorable or unfavorable impression.

Instructional design - A process for systematically creating instructional materials and learning activities based on
the goals of the instruction and the needs of the learners.

Impassive assessment - Assessment based on comparison of an individual's current performance with the
individual's past performance.

Journal Writing - Practice of writing daily in a book or other source intended to record one's ideas and
experiences, create stories, or keep written records of events.

Kolb`s learning cycle - Learning model, presented by David Kolb, that identifies 4 stages in the learning cycle:
concrete experience, observations and reflections, formation of abstract concepts and generalizations, and testing
implications of concepts in new situations.

Laboratory based education - Educational format in which learners complete experiments in a laboratory in order
to learn experimental methods or test hypotheses they are studying.

Lifelong learning - Idea that learning can and does occur beyond the formal structure of an educational institution
and occurs throughout one's lifetime

Motivational context - The attempt to provide a setting where students are motivated to learn; can be achieved in
various ways such as encouraging students to take responsibility for their own learning, being involved in
selecting the topics for learning, or planning a lesson.

Networking - Attempt to connect with individuals in a similar area of work in order to engage in informal
communication for mutual assistance or support.

Networked Learning Environment (NLE) - Learning environment based on a network of communication and
information technologies.

Objective tests - Test based on answers that require students demonstrate a knowledge or skill exactly with no
opportunity for judgment by the evaluator.

Online learning - Educational environment that exists in cyberspace using communications tools such as email,
chat rooms readings on the Internet, and/or video conferencing.

Performance criteria - Written standards used by an evaluator to judge whether an individual can perform a skill
or has demonstrated knowledge.

Portfolio Assessment - Assessment of a portfolio intended to judge the students development and current state of
knowledge and skills.

Quality assurance - Internal and external processes for ensuring the quality of an object or institution maintains a
desired level.

Records of achievement - Written records, either qualitative or quantitative, of a learner's achievement during a
period of learning.

Role play - Learning process in which participants act out the roles of other individuals in order to develop
particular skills and to meet particular learning objectives.

Scaffolded Instruction - Teaching methodology where teachers assist and guide students so that they can complete
learning activities they could not do without support.

Student-centered learning - Educational approach emphasizes the student's responsibility for learning, interacting
with teachers and other students, researching, and assessment by focusing on the student's role in these activities.

Summative assessment - Assessment typically completed at the end of a learning period with the aim of providing
a final evaluation of individual's mastery of a knowledge or skill.
Time-constrained assessment - Assessment based on an assignment that must be completed in a specified and
limited amount of time, e.g. a timed examination.

Transparency - Effort to make processes and policies visible to outside interested parties, e.g. external examiners,
quality control committees, and the general public.

User groups - Groups of individuals who meet to share information about technology and computer-related
activities, often to aid each other solve problems.

Video conference - Discussion between two or more people who can see and hear each other using video
equipment and transmissions over telephone lines or the Internet.

Virtual laboratory - Computer-based learning experience where individuals are able to simulate experiments
completed in a traditional laboratory.

Weighting - Statistical process of determining a factor for an item to reflect the importance of the item as it relates
to other items, e.g. one test item may be "weighted" to count twice as much as any other problem.

Widening access - Attempts to provide disadvantaged students maximum opportunities to participate in courses;
attempts may include modifications of entry requirements or alternative teaching formats.
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